Вулканы столь же опасны, как и величественны. Свыше 50 извержений ежегодно происходят на нашей планете. Что вызывает образование и извержение вулканов, и где они скорее всего произойдут? Читайте об этом на английском языке с переводом на русский.
Our planet has a violent soul. Majestic and often destructive volcanic explosions are collected imagination. Krakatoa, mount Saint Helens, Etna, Eyjafjallajökull[ei-ya-fyat-LA-yer-kitle] Эйяфьядлайёкюдль — вулкан в Исландии… The images simultaneously strike fear and awe in our hearts. But how did these giant mountains form and where does their destructive force come from?
Магма — кровь Земли
At least 50 eruptions rock the Earth each year meaning our planet is literally bursting a part of the things. The Earth’s crust is made up of about 17 slabs of land called tectonic plates, that float on a super heated magma that makes up most of the planet’s interior. Magma is Earth’s lifeblood turning restlessly beneath the crust. And wherever it can it’s trying to burst through. When magma reaches the surface, then, a volcano is formed.
Our planet is home to some 500 active volcanoes. While some volcanoes like those in Hawaii break through a thin point in the crust called a Hot spot, the vast majority of volcanoes occur on active fault lines where tectonic plates meet. The most volatile region is the Ring of Fire, a geological fold belt that rims the Pacific Ocean and holds roughly 75% of all the Earth’s volcanoes.
Две формы вулканов
Typically, volcanoes take one of two forms. Shield volcanoes wide and broad with lava usually slowly oozing out of them, and composite or strato volcanoes steeper and more violent. When hot liquid magma reaches the surface whether in a slithering flow or a booming eruption we call it lava. Though molten lava may seem threatening, it’s not known to move quickly. A volcano’s pyroclastic flow is far more deadly. Its poisonous ash cloud can race down the slope of a volcano like a bullet train obliterating everything in its path at speeds topping 100 miles per hour. It’s what stopped the residents of Pompeii dead in their tracks.
Вулканы — часть жизненного цикла планеты
But despite the volcanoes brutal destruction it is also a force of beauty and rebirth for the planet. Lava creates new lands where life can flourish. Like it or not volcanoes are part of the planet’s life cycle. As the Earth continues to explode, gurgle, and slither its molten lava out, we must learn to live side-by-side with its awesome power.
Читайте как составить прогноз погоды на английском.